(1) Laminectomy – A laminectomy involves removing the back part of the bone (called the lamina) over the spinal column. A laminectomy is performed to relieve nerve root compression (pinched nerve) on one or more nerve roots in the spinal column. The compressed nerve root often causes back and leg pain. A segment of the entire lamina can be removed to relieve pressure on a nerve.
(2) Discectomy – A discectomy is the surgical removal of abnormal disc material that presses on a nerve root or the spinal cord. The procedure involves removing a portion of an intervertebral disc, which causes pain, weakness or numbness by stressing the spinal cord or radiating nerves.
(3) Spinal fusion – A spinal fusion involves the permanent fusion of two or more vertebrae for more stability, to correct a deformity or to relieve pain. In many cases they will use wires, rods, screws, metal cages or plates to provide immediate stability.